Iranians that we owe the general designation for magic. The word " Magie", as is well known,  is derived from the Old-Persian 'magav', and denotes "the (pretended) art of controlling occult forces and of producing effects contrary to the known order of nature".' The purpose of this article is to gather all the more important allusions to Sorcery and Witchcraft and other practices included in the general term magic, contained in the Zoroastrian literature, and to present also a concise exposition of certain other primitive beliefs prevalent among the ancient Iranians. The aim is merely to supply, for the time being, the need of a more general and exhaustive work ; and for that reason, and because of limitations of space, this monograph is not intended to be comparative in its character. Only in cases where it deemed desirable to bring out a point more clearly, have I drawn attention to analogies among other races. For the sake of convenience, the matter to be discusised has been divided into the following subdivisions : (1) Sorcery and Witchcraft; {2) Wizards, Witches, Kavis and Karpans; (3) The Evil Eye; (4) Nail-Paring and Hair-Cutting; (5) Noxious Creatures; (6) Miscellaneous Beliefs ; (7) Spells and Exorcisms. A short discussion on the nature of these categories will precede each subdivision.


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Allusions to Witchcraft & Other Primitive Beliefs in the Zoroastrain Literature